Sunday, April 26, 2015

Writing Software for Windows

From Literature and Latte - Links.
 
PageFour
PageFour allows you to edit and organise your writing in a tabbed interface. It provides word processing and outlining capabilities, and is probably the product closest to Scrivener on Windows. It also provides versioning (called “Snapshots” in PageFour—the direct inspiration for Scrivener’s implementation of versioning; and yes, I shamelessly borrowed the name of the feature, too). Highly recommended.
SmartEdit
From the developer of PageFour (above), SmartEdit focusses on the editing phase of a writing project. It's not a replacement for a human editor, naturally, but it will help you get your manuscript into a shape that your editor will thank you for. It contains tools to help you discover repeatedly used phrases, adverb over-use and other common problems. SmartEdit is currently available for Windows, though the developer has stated a Mac version may one day appear.
RoughDraft
RoughDraft is a great piece of organisational software that allows you to create and edit rich text files in a tabbed interface, organise them in a Windows Explorer-like side panel, and to keep notes on each one. Unlike other writing software mentioned here, RoughDraft doesn’t keep your files inside its own package, but instead just aids you in organising them on your hard drive. Recommended, though with the caveat that it is no longer under active development
WriteWay Pro
WriteWay Pro is a designed to be a professional writer’s tool. It restricts you to using Acts, Chapters and Scenes, but other than that it is fairly freeform, with a “scratch pad” for storing ideas or scenes you don’t know what to do with. It has decent word processing capabilities, but for me it’s a little over-complicated and clunky, with the option to fill in numerous forms about characters, what should happen in chapters and so forth. I prefer my software not to prompt me, but to leave me to get on with things. Nonetheless, WriteWay Pro seems powerful and relatively flexible, and it is fairly popular.
Liquid Story Binder
The developers of Liquid Story Binder seem to have had a similar idea to me: to allow writers to store and view their research in the same application as they do their writing. It lets you view pictures and multiple files, although it does force you to do so in different windows. It also features a decent labelling system and various other tools aimed at the creative writer.
Outline 4D
Outline 4D (was StoryView) is an intriguing idea and potentially very powerful. It is essentially an outliner, except that as well as being able to view your story synopsis in a traditional(ish) outliner, you can also view it as a hiearchical storyboard. So at the top, you have a very wide box that may be a description of your book as a whole; underneath that, you might have three boxes describing the three main sections of the book; beneath each of those, you might have several boxes describing the chapters in each part; and so on. Definitely worth trying out.
NewNovelist
NewNovelist seems to be one of the more popular creative writing software titles available on the PC. I’m not a big fan of it myself, but it seems to have gotten quite a good review from the Sunday Times (according to their website), and I do owe NewNovelist a big debt as it gave me the initial spark of inspiration for Scrivener. The trouble with NewNovelist is that although it keeps a list of your documents over on the left and allows you to create the text and edit on the right, it is very rigid and formulaic. It forces you to divide your writing into twelve parts, which are based (through various annoying onscreen prompts) on Christopher Vogler’s twelve-step interpretation of Joseph Campbell’s work on the hero’s journey. So if you want to write anything that doesn’t fit that particular structure, you are out of luck. Still, all these limitations did give me the idea for a piece of software without such limitations…
yWriter
yWriter is a free application which helps writers organise their work into chapters and scenes. It is a freeform tool which doesn’t impose plot ideas or perform other creative tasks. Rather, it helps the author keep track of characters, locations, point-of-view, notes, and so forth, all in one application. yWriter is a multi-platform application, which can run on Linux and Mac OS X as well as Windows, using the Mono platform.
Writemonkey
In the same vein as WriteRoom for the Mac, Q10 for Windows, and jDarkroom for multi-platform, Writemonkey presents a stripped down and isolated space for pure writing. It is a plain-text editor, optionally integrating with Markdown or Textile to allow for easily formatted exports. It’s primary purpose is the development of text, rather than the editing of text, promoting the theory of reduced distractions to increase writing quality and speed.
Q10
A free, lightweight, full screen plain-text editor for Windows featuring useful tools for writers, such as live text statistics, customisable page count calculation, target goals, autosave, timer alarm for timed writing sessions, a spell checker, inline commentation, and more. If you are looking for something like WriteRoom which runs on Windows, Q10 is an good alternative. It will not help you out with planning and organising long texts, but as a focussed first-draft tool, it’s isolated full-screen implementation is great for blocking out distractions.
ConnectedText
This research, information manager and creativity tool brings the power of wiki-style connective thought to your computer. While it’s not a dedicated writing program, it has interesting, unique features that could easily be used in conjunction with an application like Scrivener for Windows, as a research assistant---or even as a stand-alone writing application.

Friday, April 24, 2015

Self-Publishing Sites

Found at Literature and Latte - Links

Self-Publishing


CreateSpace
A subsidiary of Amazon.com, CreateSpace makes it easy to self-publish, providing many services that would be difficult to get access to otherwise. Quality print on demand, e-book publishing, marketing, and graphic design services are available. Scrivener for the Mac supports CreateSpace publication specifications with version 2.1.
Lulu
Lulu remains perhaps the most popular self-publishing solution on the internet. You can upload a book in PDF format (it supports certain other formats, too), choose the specifications, and order as many—or as few—as you wish.
BookBaby
BookBaby is a leading eBook publishing company for independent authors. BookBaby makes it easy to sell your eBook through the world's biggest retailers, including Amazon Kindle, Apple's iTunes Bookstore, the Sony Reader Store, NOOK by Barnes & Noble, and more. Best of all, you get paid 100%. BookBaby takes nothing. Need eBook formatting, cover design, short run book printing, or web hosting services? No problem. BookBaby makes publishing your eBook easy. BookBaby is part of the AVL Digital family of businesses, which also includes Disc Makers, CD Baby, and HostBaby.
Blurb
Blurb offers a similar service to Lulu, except it provides software to create the book you will upload. I saw a sample of some the books created in Blurb at the 2009 Macworld Expo, and was very impressed with the paperback (it’s also great for picture books). The main drawback is that its import features seem somewhat limited, supporting only the Microsoft Word format (although you can paste in text from pretty much any program).
Do It Yourself
Of course, if you’re feeling adventurous and have a bit of time on your hands, you could even try a spot of bookbinding yourself. Hamish MacDonald describes how he binds his own books here, and the results are breathtaking.

Monday, April 13, 2015

NATIVE AMERICAN TREES SERIES: GAMBEL OAK

Quercus gambelii, with the common name Gambel oak, is a deciduous small tree or large shrub widespread in the foothills and lower mountain elevations of western North America. Also regionally called scrub oak, oak brush, Utah White Oak, and Rocky Mountain white oak. As the Gambel oak and Quercus gambelii, it was named after the American naturalist William Gambel (1823–1849). It is nothing like the stately oaks of the Eastern United States, being shorter and somewhat ragged in its growth, which explains it's common name, scrub oak.


Quercus gambelii trees vary significantly in size from one location to another. The average mature height is from 3–9 metres (9.8–29.5 ft), but occasionally reaches heights of 18 metres (59 ft) in some locations. Dwarf stands of plants under 1 metre (3.3 ft) tall are common in marginal areas where heavy browsing occurs. Although the tree's wood is hard and dense, its branches are irregular and crooked, making them flexible enough to bend without breaking when covered with heavy snow. The bark is rough and brownish-gray. The wood is mostly used for fenceposts and fuel.

The leaves are generally 7–12 cm (3–5 inches) long and 4–6 cm broad, deeply lobed on each side of the central vein; the upper surface is glossy dark green, the undersurface is paler and velvety. They frequently turn orange and yellow during autumn, creating mountainsides of vivid colors. The flowers are inconspicuous unisexual catkins that occur in the spring.

The acorns are 1–2 centimeters (0.75 in) long, and about one-third to one-half enclosed by a cap or cup (cupule); they mature in September, turning from green to golden brown. The plant reproduces from acorns, but also spreads most rapidly from root sprouts that grow from vast underground structures called Iignotubers. These reproductive characteristics often result in dense groves or thickets of the trees that often cover entire mountainsides.

Quercus gambelii flourishes in full sun on hillsides with thin, rocky, alkaline soil where competition from other plant species is limited. It also does well in richer soils, but in those areas it is forced to compete for growing room. It is well-adapted to locations where wet springs and hot, dry summers create conditions conducive to wildfires. After a fire, Gambel oak quickly re-establishes itself from
root spouts. The plant is also quite drought tolerant.

Associated plant species can include: chokecherry, arrowleaf balsamroot, bigtooth maple, mountain mahogany, ponderosa pine, and serviceberry. Associated birds and mammals include Western Scrub Jay, black-billed magpie, grouse, deer, chipmunks and squirrels.

Because of its abundance, the Gambel oak is an important food source for browsing animals such as deer and livestock. The thickets are popular bedding locations for mule deer, difficult for larger animals and people to invade. Acorns are gathered by squirrels and stored for winter food. Wild turkeys, hogs and other domestic animals enjoy the sweetish acorns. Some insects, such as the Colorado Hairstreak Butterfly, depend on the Gambel oak as a food source for caterpillars. Historically, acorns from Gambel oak provided a reliable source of food for Native Americans.


Gambel Oak is the one oak common to the Rocky Mountain region, abundant in Grand Canyon National Park and the parks in Southern Utah.

Sunday, April 5, 2015

The Tradition and History of Easter Eggs

The egg is one of the enduring symbols of Easter, and unsurprisingly, we find it present far, far before the modern era.
Easter and Easter eggs have their roots in pagan Europe, where eggs symbolized the rebirth of the Earth in celebrations of spring. When the pagans converted to Christianity, they kept many of their symbols and holidays and gave them meaning within their new religion.
The meaning of the Easter egg can also be found in other mythologies and religions: “[e]ggs were held by the Egyptians as a sacred emblem of the renovation of mankind after the Deluge. Jews [of the Ancient Era] adopted this mythos to suit the circumstances of their history, as a type of their departure from the land of Egypt, and it was used in the Feast of the Passover, as part of the furniture of the table, with the Paschal lamb. The Christians have […] used it on this day, as retaining the elements of future life, for an emblem of the Resurrection.”
Edwardian easter egg
Interestingly enough, the English word for “Easter” is Saxon, although the Spanish, French, and Scandinavians cling to the Semitic word, derived from the Aramaic pesach, which means “to pass by,” and has been translated into passover. From this, Easter eggs are also called also Pasche, Pash, Pace, or Paste eggs.
The earliest known practice of painting and decorating eggs comes from 2,500 years ago, when the ancient Zoroastrians painted eggs for Nowrooz, their New Year celebration, which fell on the Spring equinox. The painting of eggs also derived from the folk traditions of Bulgaria, Russia, Romania, Ukraine, and Poland. In the 18th century, Italy produced beautifully designed and elaborately painted Easter eggs, which were frequently presented as gifts to ladies of quality.
By the Edwardian era, decorating Easter eggs had become a very fine art–eggs were painted, dyed, enameled, bejeweled, and beribboned. Some books of children’s amusements even featured instructions for turning eggs shells into a variety of shapes, such as frogs, or gluing delicate appendages on them to turn them into rabbits or cranes. In Switzerland, craftsmen carved delicate wooden eggs, which were painted and highly polished, and held little gifts (a bottle of scent, a tiny vanity bag, or some of the miniature bronze or china animals and birds).
French eggs were incredible chic, “covered with every conceivable material, stylishly trimmed with ribbons, artificial flowers, birds, and butterflies.” They usually contained chocolates or bon-bons, and the more sophisticated eggs were used as table decorations. And let us not forget the absolutely amazing and breathtaking eggs created by Carl FabergĂ© for Russia’s Imperial family and for the wealthy.
Duchess of Marlborough Egg
Duchess of Marlborough Egg
Chocolate and chocolate cream eggs were also very popular treats. Charles Apell’s Up-to-Date Candy Teacher gives a recipe for chocolate Easter eggs:
Place in a copper kettle and melt down on the fire 50 lbs. of No. 1 fondant cream and heat the cream thin enough to cast, then add 15 lbs. of special nougat fondant and heat the cream thin enough so that it can be casted by runner or funnel dropper. Then add 4 ounces of vanilla flavor, then cast in starch, using the different sizes of egg shape molds, from the 5 cent egg to the $1 size chocolate dipped egg.
Make the eggs with fruit, nuts and cocoanut in the cream, or drop the glazed pineapple or glazed cherries or nuts in the cream. Then leave in starch over night, then dip each half in the 25c and 50c and the $1 size in chocolate. Then, after they are dipped in chocolate, stick the two halves together with chocolate. Then decorate by placing a border around the egg where the two halves are stuck together. In making the large size eggs the cream must be heated good and hot before being casted in starch, or otherwise the cream will not hold its shape when dipped in chocolate.
In making the 10 cent size eggs stick the two halves together before being dipped in chocolate, then have the chocolate dippers make the decoration or splice on the chocolate dipped egg when it is being dipped.
For the traditional Easter egg, the coloring was obtained from inexpensive dyes, or cheap ribbon, which was boiled in a little water and the egg submerged into the bowl until the desired color was obtained. Calico eggs were very popular, and to make them, you would wrap each egg in a piece of chintz, and the pattern would adhere to the egg shell while boiling. Other sources for color included the red skins of onions for rose, logwood dye for blue, Spinach water for green, and onion juice water for a golden yellow.
For painted eggs for place cards or caricatures, the boiled egg was washed in powdered pumice to remove the gloss of the shell, then the egg yolk was blown out of the shell through small holes pricked at both ends. After the yolk was gently blown out of the egg, it was rinsed with warm water and dried carefully. The decoration was drawn with a hard pencil and then quickly painted over with watercolors. If the egg was intended to hold a dainty treat, a hole was made on one end, the treat dropped in, and the shell pasted with thin paper.
The most enduring Easter egg event in American history is the annual egg rolling across the White House lawn. Some point to Dolly Madison as the arbiter of this tradition, but it kicked into full swing under the administration of Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881). Children of every ethnicity arrived from just about every corner of Washington D.C. to roll their eggs on the White Lot (an area located between the South Lawn of the White House and the Washington Monument). By the 1900s, it had become the social event of fashionable Washington, and a Marine Band was added for sprightly music!
Egg rolling
Egg rolling on the White House lawn

Posted on April 21, 2011 by Evangeline Holland    / Posted in Amusements    

Saturday, April 4, 2015

THE BEGINNINGS OF THE BROWNIE

Nineteenth century changes in chocolate taste and form encouraged experimentation in cooking and baking. The first chocolate bars were produced in Britain in the mid-nineteenth century and milk chocolate bars followed a few decades later. The Boston-based chocolatier Walter M. Lowney debuted the first American chocolate bars at the Columbian Exposition held in Chicago, Illinois, in 1893. ((Westbrook, “Chocolate at the World’s Fairs, 1851-1964,” 202))
Some sources suggest that it was also at the Columbian Exposition that new chocolate baked good was introduced. As the story goes, the wealthy socialite Mrs. Bertha Potter Palmer:
…asked her chef at The Palmer House Hotel in Chicago to create a dessert that could be tucked into a box lunch for ladies to eat while attending the Columbian Exposition. The result was a super-rich, fudgy-chocolate confection – the Palmer House brownie. The brownie remains on the hotel’s menu, but the name of the creative chef, alas, is lost in antiquity. ((Hall, Suzanne. “A Batch of Brownies.” The National Culinary Review, May 2007, 42-43))
These brownies, possibly the first ever made, included significant amounts of chocolate, butter, and sugar, as well as cake flour and eggs. Interestingly, they were also topped with walnuts and an apricot glaze. They are still served today at what is now The Palmer House Hilton in Chicago. You can find The Palmer House Brownie recipe online [pdf].

The use of chocolate in baking increased dramatically in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, largely thanks to the efforts of enterprising housekeeping and cooking educators who partnered with industry in the name of “domestic science.” At the Columbian Exposition, for example, Walter Baker & Company demonstrated chocolate making with their equipment and offered free samples to visitors. In an attempt to encourage the use of their chocolate in cooking, they also provided free copies of Maria Parloa’s “Choice Receipts,” a recipe brochure with suggestions on how to use chocolate and cocoa in home kitchens. ((Westbrook, “Chocolate at the World’s Fairs, 1851-1964,” 202))

Maria Parloa, or “Miss Parloa,” sometimes called the “first celebrity cook,” was a Boston-based educator and author, and the founder of two cooking schools. Parloa was part of a larger movement of educators dedicated to teaching women domestic science skills in the late 1800s and early 1900s. ((See Shapiro, Laura. Perfection Salad: Women and Cooking at the Turn of the Century. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1986)) Another cookbook born out of the collaboration between Walter Baker & Company and Miss Parloa is the iconic 1909 work entitled Chocolate and Cocoa Recipes and Home Made Candy Recipes (available online).

Around the turn of the twentieth century, advances in science transformed many housekeeping and cooking tasks that were heavily laborious and largely carried out by women. These included improvements in sanitation technology, the advent of gas and electricity in the home, and the proliferation of tools and concepts designed to make home-based tasks more efficient and business-like. ((ibid, 4)) One well-known example is American culinary expert Fannie Farmer’s innovation of “level measurements,” an alternative to cumbersome weighing of quantities or unscientific notions of a “pinch,” “dash,” or “smidgen.” ((ibid, 114))

At the Boston Cooking School, founded in 1879, educators like Maria Parloa and Fannie Farmer offered instruction to women on how best to run a kitchen and a home. These educators promoted their ideas in cooking schools, magazines, clubs, and with lecture tours, with the fundamental belief that efficiently run, business-like homes were good for America. ((ibid, 48)) They partnered with institutions in industry, education, and government, forming degree-granting programs, a professional organization, a journal, and annual meetings, to professionalize homemaking and endorse what would eventually come to be known as “home economics.”

It was most likely thanks to the domestic science network and the increasing popularity of related cookbooks, magazines, and cooking schools that brownies came to be known throughout the United States. The question of who published the first brownie recipe is difficult to answer. Fannie Farmer’s 1896 Boston Cooking-School Cook Book (available online) included a recipe for “brownies” that is significantly different than what most have come to expect; it contained no chocolate.
Brownies
1/3 cup butter
1/3 cup powdered sugar
1/3 cup Porto Rico molasses
1 egg well beaten
7/8 cup bread flour
1 cup pecan meat cut in pieces
Mix ingredients in order given. Bake in small, shallow fancy cake tins, garnishing top of each cake with one-half pecan. ((Farmer, Fannie Merritt. The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co., 1896, 28))
The first published recipe for brownies made with chocolate available on record may be from the Service Club of Chicago’s 1904 Cook Book, a publication of recipes contributed by club members in a section on “Candy.” The recipe, called “Bangor Brownies,” likely a reference to a long-told but as-yet-unsubstantiated story that chocolate brownies originated in Bangor, Maine, looked like this:

Cream one-half cup of butter, one cup sugar. Add two squares (one-quarter cake) Baker’s chocolate, melted, two eggs, one-half cup pastry flour and one-half cup chopped walnuts. Spread on baking tins and bake fifteen minutes in a moderate oven. ((McWilliams, Mark. The Story Behind the Dish: Classic American Foods. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2012, 22-23))

Thursday, April 2, 2015

NATIVE TREES SERIES: JUNEBERRY OR SERVICEBERRY

Maybe you’ve already planted one of these 25- to 30-foot trees for its white or reddish spring blossoms and vibrant autumn foliage. If so, don’t overlook the tasty, edible fruit. The small blue, red, or white berries have a unique sweet flavor that hints of almond.

Juneberry trees and shrubs (Amelanchier spp.) grow wild throughout North America and are known by various other names, including saskatoon, shadblow, and sarvis or serviceberry, depending on location. All species bear edible fruits, but the tastiest ones are found on the Allegheny serviceberry (A. laevis), the thicket serviceberry (A. canadensis), the saskatoon (A. alnifolia), and a hybrid, the apple serviceberry (A. grandiflora). Good varieties for fruit and beauty include ‘Ballerina’, ‘Cumulus’, and ‘Robin Hill’.

Plant your juneberry in well-drained soil in either full sun or partial shade. The trees are hardy in Zones 4 through 8, and need little care once they are established. If you see a few orange spots on the leaves, don't be alarmed. It’s probably rust, a disease spread from wild red cedars. You don’t need to take any special measures because the disease usually doesn’t harm the fruits.

Juneberries begin to bear fruits in their third or fourth year. Harvest them quickly—before they drop, dry up, or are eaten by the birds. You can eat them right off the tree or cook them, complementing their sweetness with one of the season’s tarter fruits, such as currants. For traditional American fare, cook juneberries with rhubarb, or pound the dried berries with meat (preferably buffalo) to make pemmican, a staple of the Native American tribes of the prairies. The berries are prepared in puddings, pies and muffins, jams, and dried like raisins. They were an important food source for Native Americans, as well as wildlife such as songbirds,


squirrels and bears. Deer and livestock browse the foliage.

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

DESERT RECIPES FROM THE 19TH CENTURY

19TH CENTURY DEVIL'S FOOD CAKE


1 c. butter
1 c. brown sugar
1 c. molasses
1/2 c. grated chocolate, dissolved in boiling water
1 tsp. cream of tartar
1 tsp. cloves
1/2 tsp. nutmeg
1 c. citron
1 c. white sugar
1 c. sweet cream or milk
4 c. flour
4 eggs, beaten separately
1/2 tsp. soda
1 tsp. cinnamon
2 c. raisins
1 c. meat nuts, chopped fine
Mix dry ingredients. Cream butter and sugar; add beaten eggs, molasses, and chocolate. Add dry ingredients alternately with cream. Fold in raisins, citron, and nuts. Bake in 4 layers in slow oven (325 degrees) approximately 30 minutes. Put together with white icing.
 


 
FAMOUS SWEDISH DESSERT FROM THE 19TH
CENTURY



1 can of pear halves, approximately 28 oz.
1 piece of ginger or 1 tsp. ground ginger
Boil the pears in their juice together with the ginger, 10 to 15 minutes. Let pears cool in the syrup. Serve with real whipped cream, flavored with a tablespoon of sugar. Serves 4 to 5.


SPICE CAKE FROM 19TH CENTURY


2 c. sugar
3 eggs
1 c. bacon drippings
3 c. flour
2 tsp. cinnamon
2 tsp. nutmeg
1 tsp. cloves
3 tsp. baking powder
1 c. cold water
Mix all ingredients together thoroughly. Bake in a greased and floured tube pan at 350 degrees for 45 minutes. Sprinkle with powdered sugar or drizzle a glaze over cooled cake.


Choice Recipes by Miss Maria Parloa
SPECIALLY PREPARED FOR WALTER BAKER & Co. LTD.

PLAIN CHOCOLATE 
 For six people, use one quart of milk, two ounces of Walter Baker & Co.'s Premium No. 1 Chocolate, one tablespoonful of cornstarch, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, and two tablespoonfuls of hot water. Mix the cornstarch with one gill of the milk. Put the remainder of the milk on to heat in the double-boiler. When the milk comes to the boiling point, stir in the cornstarch and cook for ten minutes. Have the chocolate cut in fine bits, and put it in a small iron or granite-ware pan; add the sugar and water, and place the pan over a hot fire. Stir constantly until the mixture is smooth and glossy. Add this to the hot milk, and beat the mixture with a whisk until it is frothy. Or, the chocolate may be poured back and forth from the boiler to a pitcher, holding high the vessel from which you pour. This will give a thick froth. Serve at once. If you prefer not to have the chocolate thick, omit the cornstarch. If condensed milk is used, substitute water for the milk named above and add three tablespoonfuls of condensed milk when the chocolate is added. 

CHOCOLATE, VIENNA STYLE 
 Use four ounces of Walter Baker & Co.'s Vanilla Chocolate, one quart of milk, three tablespoonfuls of hot water, and one tablespoonful of sugar. Cut the chocolate in fine bits. Put the milk on the stove in the double-boiler, and when it has been heated to the boiling point, put the chocolate, sugar and water in a small iron or granite-ware pan, and stir over a hot fire until smooth and glossy. Stir this mixture into the hot milk, and beat well with a whisk. Serve at once, putting a tablespoonful of whipped cream in each cup and then filling up with the chocolate. The plain chocolate may be used instead of the vanilla, but in that case use a teaspoonful of vanilla extract and three generous tablespoonfuls of sugar instead of one. 

BREAKFAST COCOA 
Walter Baker & Co.'s Breakfast Cocoa is powdered so fine that it can be dissolved by pouring boiling water on it. For this reason it is often prepared at the table. A small teaspoonful of the powder is put in the cup with a teaspoonful of sugar; on this is poured two-thirds of a cup of boiling water, and milk or cream is added to suit the individual taste. This is very convenient; but cocoa is not nearly so good when prepared in this manner as when it is boiled. For six cupfuls of cocoa use two tablespoonfuls of the powder, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, half a pint of boiling water, and a pint and a half of milk. Put the milk on the stove in the double-boiler. Put the cocoa and sugar in a saucepan, and gradually pour the hot water upon them, stirring all the time. Place the saucepan on the fire and stir until the contents boil. Let this mixture boil for five minutes; then add the boiling milk and serve. A gill of cream is a great addition to this cocoa. Scalded milk may be used in place of boiled milk, if preferred. For flavoring, a few grains of salt and half a teaspoonful of vanilla extract may be added. 

CHOCOLATE LAYER CAKE 
Beat half a cupful of butter to a cream, and gradually beat into it one cupful of sugar. When this is light, beat in half a cupful of milk, a little at a time, and one teaspoonful of vanilla. Beat the whites of six eggs to a stiff froth. Mix half a teaspoonful of baking powder with two scant cupfuls of sifted flour. Stir the flour and whites of eggs alternately into the mixture. Have three deep tin plates well buttered, and spread two-thirds of the batter in two of them. Into the remaining batter stir one ounce of Walter Baker & Co.'s Premium No. 1 Chocolate, melted, and spread this batter in the third plate. Bake the cakes in a moderate oven for about twenty minutes. Put a layer of white cake on a large plate, and spread with white icing. Put the dark cake on this, and also spread with white icing. On this put the third cake. Spread with chocolate icing. 


TO MAKE THE ICING. 
Put into a granite-ware saucepan two gills of sugar and one of water, and boil gently until bubbles begin to come from the bottom--say, about five minutes. Take from the fire instantly. Do not stir or shake the sugar while it is cooking. Pour the hot syrup in a thin stream into the whites of two eggs that have been beaten to a stiff froth, beating the mixture all the time. Continue to beat until the icing is thick. Flavor with one teaspoonful of vanilla. Use two-thirds of this as a white icing, and to the remaining third add one ounce of melted chocolate. To melt the chocolate, shave it fine and put in a cup, which is then to be placed in a pan of boiling water. 

CHOCOLATE CAKE 
For two sheets of cake, use three ounces of Walter Baker & Co.'s Premium No. 1 Chocolate, three eggs, one cupful and three-fourths of sifted pastry flour, one cupful and three-fourths of sugar, half a cupful of butter, half a cupful of milk, half a teaspoonful of vanilla extract, one teaspoonful and a half of baking powder. Grate the chocolate. Beat the butter to a cream, and gradually beat in the sugar. Beat in the milk and vanilla, then the eggs (already well beaten), next the chocolate, and finally the flour, in which the baking powder should be mixed. Pour into two well buttered shallow cake pans. Bake for twenty-five minutes in a moderate oven. Frost or not, as you like. 

 CHOCOLATE MARBLE CAKE 
Put one ounce of Walter Baker & Co.'s Chocolate and one tablespoonful of butter in a cup, and set this in a pan of boiling water. Beat to a cream half a cupful of butter and one cupful of sugar. Gradually beat in half a cupful of milk. Now add the whites of six eggs beaten to a stiff froth, one teaspoonful of vanilla, and a cupful and a half of sifted flour, in which is mixed one teaspoonful of baking powder. Put about one-third of this mixture into another bowl, and stir the melted butter and chocolate into it. Drop the white-and-brown mixture in spoonfuls into a well buttered deep cake pan, and bake in a moderate oven for about forty-five minutes; or, the cake can be baked in a sheet and iced with a chocolate or white icing.
  
CHOCOLATE BISCUIT 

Cover three large baking pans with paper that has been well oiled with washed butter. Over these dredge powdered sugar. Melt in a cup one ounce of Walter Baker & Co.'s Premium No. 1 Chocolate. Separate the whites and yolks of four eggs. Add to the yolks a generous half cupful of powdered sugar, and beat until light and firm. Add the melted chocolate, and beat a few minutes longer. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff, dry froth. Measure out three-fourths of a cupful of sifted flour, and stir it and the whites into the yolks. The whites and flour must be cut in as lightly as possible, and with very little stirring. Drop the mixture in teaspoonfuls on the buttered paper. Sprinkle powdered sugar over the cakes, and bake in a slow oven for about fourteen or fifteen minutes. The mixture can be shaped like lady fingers, if preferred. 

CHOCOLATE WAFERS

Grate four ounces of Walter Baker & Co.'s Premium No. 1 Chocolate, and mix with it two tablespoonfuls of flour and one-fourth of a teaspoonful each of cinnamon, cloves and baking powder. Separate six eggs. Add one cupful of powdered sugar to the yolks, and beat until very light; then add the grated yellow rind and the juice of half a lemon, and beat five minutes longer. Now add the dry mixture, and with a spoon lightly cut in the whites, which are first to be beaten to a stiff froth. Pour the mixture into buttered shallow pans, having it about half an inch thick. Bake in a moderate oven for half an hour. When the cake is cool, spread a thin layer of currant jelly over one sheet, and place the other sheet on this. Ice with vanilla icing; and when this hardens, cut in squares. It is particularly nice to serve with ice-cream.